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The lesson that Jesuits could give aid organisations in Africa

Catholic charities, of course, provide 25 per cent of all HIV treatment

By on Thursday, 23 August 2012

Nigerian women wait for antiretroviral treatment outside a clinic at a Catholic hospital (CNS photo)

Nigerian women wait for antiretroviral treatment outside a clinic at a Catholic hospital (CNS photo)

I have discovered a heartening article on Rome Reports TV News agency about the quiet, good work done in sub-Saharan Africa by a Jesuit organisation, the African Jesuit Aids Network (AJAN). Begun by a Canadian priest, Fr Michael Czerny SJ, AJAN is now present in 30 African countries, since its foundation in 2002. He states: “There are many dimensions to Aids impact on a community and so first of all you need to work with those who are vulnerable but not necessarily infected, you work with those who are infected, those who’ve then passed to the stage of Aids, and then to all of those who are affected by Aids.”

Those who criticise the Church’s refusal to sanction the use of condoms in combating Aids often overlook the fact that the Church is one of the largest charitable organisations providing loving care to victims. Fr Czerny explains that the Church’s position “is a much more holistic and reasonable and effective approach, which doesn’t cut corners and which doesn’t enhance or promote disrespect between people”. AJAN is coordinated by a team run from AJAN House in Kangani, a very poor settlement on the outskirts of Nairobi. As its website explains, each of the 10 Jesuit Provinces and Regions in Africa has Aids programmes under way wherever they have a presence: in youth centres, parishes, university chaplaincies, secondary and primary schools, orphanages, hospitals and dispensaries.

The report goes on to say that pregnant mothers infected with HIV can receive an injection to ensure the virus won’t be passed on to their child during birth; this costs about $100 dollars compared to the estimated $300,000 a government spends throughout the life of someone living with HIV. This is only one of AJAN’s projects. Fr Czerny emphasises that AJAN starts with afflicted individual human beings, not with impersonal statistics. He comments: “I think from the outside we tend to use many zeros, we talk about huge numbers and alarming trends and we lose touch or we never get in touch with what it means for the individual, for the family, for the community, and finally for the country.”

The AJAN approach, which includes counselling, home-based care and education, as well as economic and medical support, considers it crucial to listen to people living with HIV and others who are affected, to shape responses according to their needs and to invite their participation in services offered. It is a very different approach from that shown by global organisations such as the UN.

In this connection, and in view of the publicity given to her recent conference in London to raise awareness of her Foundation’s work among African women, it is noteworthy that the charitable work of Melinda Gates, wife of philanthropist Bill Gates, has been criticised in L’Osservatore Romano, the Vatican newspaper. Author of the piece, Giulia Galeotti, writes that “to still believe that by opposing the use of condoms the Catholic Church leaves women and children to die because of misogynist intransigence is a baseless and shoddy reading”. Our own veteran Herald columnist, Mary Kenny, in her always courteous and diplomatic fashion, has also drawn attention to the questionable morality of some of the methods promoted by the Melinda Gates Foundation.

No one doubts that the Gates Foundation does good work in Third World countries, especially in the eradication of malaria. But perhaps they could also learn from the Jesuits and their co-workers in AJAN? Respecting human, female and marital dignity means understanding and being sensitive to the culture of those afflicted. When you are a global organisation, there is a temptation, as Fr Czerny says, to talk about “huge numbers” and to “lose touch with what it means for the individual” and for their families and wider communities. Those who dismiss the Church as heartless should be aware that Catholic organisations provide 25 per cent of all HIV treatment, care and support throughout the world and this proportion is highest in Africa – nearly 100 per cent in remote areas. Instead of seeing it as out of touch, out of date and puritanical, international secular foundations might do better to harness the Church’s wisdom and long experience of working in Third World countries.

  • Jeannine

    I admire the work the Catholic Church accomplishes in missionary territory. The quality of life increases dramatically with so little money used when there is a Catholic presence. 

  • John F. Siple

    Here’s the beauty of the Catholic Church down where the rubber meets the road! Without judgement and much personal care, unlike the U.N., the services of the Religious Orders are busy doing what God calls them to, loving, caring, nonjudgmental service.. Who can find fault here?

  • Meena

    I doubt that there is any fault to be found in the good work of these religious Orders, and they are to be respected and admired for it.
    But fault has been found (by expert medical opinion) with the catholic church in its attitude to safe sex (and I know it’s not 100% safe – nothing in this world is 100% safe, but “safe sex” is very, very safe).Others, like the writer of this ridiculous article, feed like parasites on the work of these Orders to further demonise some of their favourite ‘bete noirs’ and to promote the reactionary and predictable views of some Vatican (and other catholic) journalists.

  • theroadmaster

    This article splendidly gives the lie to the stereotypical images of the Catholic Church vis-a-vis the AIDS crisis, in Africa and in other areas of the world.  The operative word here is “holistic”, which typifies the care provided by Catholic NGOs around the globe, and it is firmly based on the innate dignity and worth of every human being, as evinced by biblical principles.  This is in contrast to the impersonal, utilitarian view of people as demonstrated by the over-emphasis of UN and national government agencies on the distribution of condoms to stem and solve this health crisis.  The positive development that resulted from changing the emphasis to couples staying faithful to each-other and the rejection of promiscuous sex with multiple partners, by national governments, could be seen in an African nation like Uganda, where the infection rate dropped dramatically from  a height of 18 percent in 1992 to 4.1 percent in 2003,

  • Acleron

    Those who criticise the Church’s refusal to sanction the use of condoms in combating Aids often overlook the fact that the Church is one of the largest charitable organisations providing loving care to victims.’

    Those who criticise your stance on condoms are concerned with preventing people becoming victims in the first place. 

  • Acleron

    There are many reasons why HIV infection rates declined in Uganda, so abstinence programs cannot claim to be the the sole answer.

    But rates appear to be rising again.

    ‘The number of new infections (an estimated 120,000 in 2009) exceeds the number of annual AIDS deaths (64,000 in 2009),20 and it is feared HIV prevalence in Uganda may be rising again. There are many theories as to why this may be happening, including the government’s shift towards abstinence-only prevention programmes, and a general complacency or ‘AIDS-fatigue’. It has been suggested that antiretroviral drugs have changed the perception of AIDS from a death sentence to a treatable, manageable disease; this may have reduced the fear surrounding HIV, and in turn have led to an increase in risky behaviour.21′ 

  • Jeannine

    You need to update your information on AIDS pertaining to the African contintent. See:

  • Meena

    No – if you read further down the page you will find that this only applies in specific “generalised” outbreaks..
    (And it is out of date and now refuted even in this narrow context).

    But even in this, and even at the time, the writer freely stated that most other workers do not agree with the point of view expressed – yet you choose to select this totally unrepresentative and single opinion in an attempt to rubbish the virtually unanimous contrary view and the best opinion of medical expertise.   

  • Meena

    And if you read a bit further you will discover that it is only the much too limited use of condoms (i.e. not enough condoms and not enough instruction on their use) which is the problem — none of this assisted (and sometimes  actually caused by irresponsible and downright evil catholic propaganda).

    Quote:    “consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa.”

    The lesson is very clear to anyone who does not have a catholic axe to grind: greater condom use is essential.

  • theroadmaster

    Abstinence programs may not be the “sole” reason for the decline of AIDS infection rates which were once so horrific in Uganda, but they certain form a major constituent part of the reason for this reversal over the 1990′s.  The tired condoms-only approach has clearly not made any major dent in the problem across Sub-Saharan region.  One has only to ask one of the major experts in global AIDS studies, Professor Edward Green, the ex–head of the AIDS Prevention Research Program at Harvard University.  He concurred with the present Pope’s analysis, that condoms have encouraged a false sense of security among those who use them, and encourages the very behavior which is instrumental in spreading this virus-based condition through Africa and other global areas.

  • John F. Siple

    I correct your use of the word “safe sex”. No such thing. We need to appropriate the miniker “safer sex”, a teaching of many years now.
    I was once holding your views, but no longer, as I have re-established myself with Church Authority, given by Jesus to Peter & the Apostles. There was a line of succession established by them from the beginning when they elected a holyman who followed Jesus from the beginning. Now Peter’s “throne” or “chair” is absolute Authority over Faith & Morality, for all the world to consider. You will be in my hope & prayer, Bro.

  • Araujo Ferreira

    “may be rising again” why this so unprecise argument after pointing precise rates and numbers?. It seems that the only point of this argument is to input doubt into the success of the project. I dont deny that those who campaign for condoms are most of the times trying to improve peoples’ lives, also it is not the point to claim for a “no condom programs” where 
    non-believers  are majority. I believed that could be added much value to this debate if non-believers consider the possibility that the promotion of a social arrangement based on faithful marriage can have many social positive effects that remain positive even if we consider a sole individual point of view…

  • edd333

    The Gates foundation  is going to destroy the African community with this evil.  African women dont need their way of family life destroyed by so called “good intentions”.    Babies are seen as hope in villages and towns.   Poverty doesnt mean they dont want children,  they could use better maturnity care and clinics that help with the living.    The Gates foundation is focused on the wrong end of the life chain and its a sad day because we know what freedom contraception brings.         

  • Jeannine

    The 4th paragraph in my referenced article clearly states that 10 AIDS experts agree with the results from a 2003 study on condom effectiveness in Africa which is that “…condoms have not worked as a primary intervention in the population-wide
    epidemics of Africa.” even after many yrs of agressive & widespread promotion of condom use.

    There’s no problem with supply & education; the African people studied just do not want to use it. Alternatives must be used to stop the spread of the desease without insulting a people. In this case alternatives do exist. Sometimes NGOs are insensitive to a local culture.

    Thus there is a need on your part to realize that condom use is not the “cure all” for stopping the spread of AIDS esp on the African continent. Although, it could be used to complement the primary intervention “tools” of monogamy & marriage. (According to the article condom use does work in Thailand & Cambodia which is explained in the 5th paragraph.)
    Please don’t take this personally, but your Catholic hatred is affecting your reading comprehension & your willingness to think “outside the relativist box.”


  • Ox

    sixty english pounds is an impossible, disgraceful amount of money for drugs to prevent mother to child transmission. What happened to the more affordable generic copies of treatments and agreements by pharmaceutical companies to make cheaper provision? 

  • maxmarley

    The Sexual Revolution has like all revolutions in the past been utterly destructive. Sadly it is cherished and fostered by malevolent revolutionaries, the gullible, gombeens, imbeciles and sadly governments and their agencies.
    Ultimately it will fail like all the other past revolutions because it is built on false doctrines and lies. {Safe sex or safe fornication is one of the biggest lies of all]
    But there will good people like those in AJAN who will tirelessly tend to its victims in Christian Love.

  • Meena

    As I said above: nothing in this world is 100% safe – but “safe sex” is very, very safe.

    I note that you believe in the “absolute Authority” of the Pope over all matters of what we should believe, and over all morality. Just one of the many problems with this is that most people don’t.

  • Meena

    I replied to this several hours ago.

    CENSOR, where is my reply – and how on heaven of Earth could you find it offensive?

  • Meena

    the Church is one of the largest charitable organisations ”

    This is only because the catholic church is a large organisation.

  • Acleron

    Green appears to be the main protagonist to condom use, many others disagree with him. 

    So to say abstinence being the ‘main’ reason for any drop in infection rates is very debatable. As far as I can see, perhaps you have other information, condoms are not advocated as the ‘only’ method. Condoms cannot induce a false sense of security but people may stop using them. Rumours spread by catholics that condoms cause HIV didn’t help. There is no doubt that abstinence will prevent sex mediated infection as will condoms. To advocate against a method that will prevent infection is perverse and will kill people.

  • John F. Siple

    We now use the term “safer sex” here in the States. That’s what I wanted to correct.
    To each his own science & statitistics & faith.

  • John F. Siple

    Africa is a different place indeed, not first workd, faithful and usually living in Christ. To bring condoms in to Africa, all birth control will ruin their morality, sexuality, and bring down Africa again to a dependency.

  • Meena

    No, just to each her, or his, own Faith. And that’s the problem.

    A world of conflicting beliefs and Faith in those beliefs – i.e. believing things with absolute 100% certainty of their truth for no rational cause, evidence or justification; in the particular case of Catholics on the statements, concerning Faith and morals, made by an infallible Pope. 

    Dear God, if you are there, bang their heads together.

  • Meena

    Of course in the matter of the use and usefulness of condoms, the Catholic Church’s STARTING POINT is that condoms are not to be used.

    Everything from Catholic sources seeks to prove that the use of condoms is flawed in preventing or/and controlling this disease.

    You start with the “end point”, viz. no condoms, and then seek to justify this end point by working backwards, using suitably selected data.

  • Meena

    The safeness of “safe sex” is undisputed. WHO gives the figures.

    “Safe sex” is very, very safe. Nothing in this world is 100% safe.

    Even staying in bed in the morning is not 100% safe (airplanes drop blocks of ice that you would miss if you got up) – or the chimney falls through the ceiling onto you.

    The phrase “safer sex” is misleading – it’s as safe as anything can reasonably be.

  • theroadmaster

    Green is not an obvious candidate to agree with the Pope’s assessment on the effectiveness of condom use to stem the AIDS crisis, as he is a secularist and does not disagree on the use of condoms in principle.  It is obvious to me or anyone who has a logical mindset, that abstinence and faithfulness to one’s partners are the only surefire ways to guarantee that one does not pickup the virus through sexual activity.  The vast majority of cases are spread through such means in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the bulk of AIDS cases are located.  The over-reliance on condoms has induced a complacent attitude in men who still persist in having relationships with multiple partners and this has caused the condition to remain at epidemic levels across the region.  In certain cases, where a wife  faces death because of an infected husband, the only solution would be abstinence or condom use.  When the husband demands that the wife complies with his wishes, the latter may be her own option to keep herself remaining in good health. 
     Local Church agencies on the ground in Africa and other continents, will tell you that condoms have exacerbated the problem, because they encourage promiscuity and have not dealt with the underlying problem i.e promiscuous sexual activity.  The encouragement of abstinence and faithfulness instills a sense of discipline, responsibility and morality into those who follow these very wise words of advice.  They also underline the integrity and worth of every human being.

  • theroadmaster

    Errata: In my last comments, I mean’t faithfulness to “one’s partner” and not “partners”.

  • Sweetjae

    It doesn’t necessarily follows a big organization is generously big in charity, that are mostly greedy who only cares for profits. However the Catholic Church is the biggest charitable institution in the world SECOND TO NONE!

    The highest rate of AIDS in Africa are those countries which are strong advocates of U.N. condom program then blame the Catholic Church who only say to be faithful to one’s partner! Your position is pure baloney!

  • Acleron

    The effectiveness of any prophylactic method is compromised by matters of compliance. Condoms and abstinence both suffer from lack of compliance. And remember that neither is 100 % effective even when applied.

    You have no evidence that condoms have produced a complacent attitude. People’s attentiveness to prophylactic measures depends on many items. Education, advertising and prevalence of disease are the important matters. The major causative effect here appears to be the efficacy of the antiretroviral drugs. This effect can be seen quite clearly in N. America today. The whooping cough epidemic is directly related to the efficacy of vaccination causing complacency. The answer, obviously, is not to stop vaccination.

    As you mention, Green supports condoms but he feels that in Africa, behavioural changes are more important. He is out of line with other workers. Only those with a vested interest more in preventing condom use than saving lives would highlight him against other equally experienced workers.

    Nevertheless, condoms prevent HIV infection, to advise against their use is not an act of a merciful organisation, merely adherence to a belief that kills people.

  • theroadmaster

    I agree that compliance with sound advice like abstinence and faithfulness, is the key to reducing level of AIDS infection. Antiretroviral drugs at generally affordable prices, have been instrumental in reducing the infection and death rates associated with this virus.
    You state rather presumptuously that I have no evidence for “complacency” on the part of those who continue on with their promiscuous lifestyles.  Well, you have no direct access to information on the ground, as distinct from those who actually treat the victims of this terrible scourge.   Martin Sempa, a protestant minister, who was an adviser to the Ugandan government in relation to it’s successful ABC program, wisely stated..”‘why do the nations in Africa with the highest condom rates correspond with the highest HIV/AIDS? These include Botswana and South Africa who have the highest condoms per male, yet they are in the top three spots of the nations with the highest HIV/AIDS. On the other hand nations with lower condom rates per male per year correspond with lower HIV/AIDS. Condoms have not reduced HIV-AIDS anywhere in the world … Higher condom rates across Africa have resulted in higher HIV..”.  This guy is situated where this health crisis is being experienced and thus knows what he is talking about.The promotion of condoms is being pushed by western secular agencies with an ideological zeal and has become the prevailing orthodoxy, but the sage advice of religious organizations on the ground is beginning to effectively counter the rather morally bankrupt advice of these organizations.

  • theroadmaster

    Africa is awash with condoms and the nations with the highest incidents of AIDS infections have the highest ratio of condoms per male e.g Botswana and South Africa.  So go figure. 

  • JabbaPapa

    Sciebce and statistics do not obey prejudice — “sfe sex” = “total sexual abstinence”.

  • JabbaPapa

    the Catholic Church’s STARTING POINT is that condoms are not to be used

    Totally untrue – our Church’sstarting point is that adultery is wrong.

  • JabbaPapa

    Because of your angry hostile attitudes ?

  • Meena

    But still not enough – and most of all: more respect for their use and more instruction in their proper use is needed.

    The Church poisons the atmosphere with its “teaching” and makes the above-mentioned respect and instruction as difficult as it can.

    There is no rational behind the Church’s propaganda: it starts with the “condoms not allowed” and tries every possible way of preventing proper condom use – with the results we can all see.

  • Meena

    Is this good news I have not yet heard?
    Is the church at last telling the people that condoms may (indeed must in many circumstances) be used?

  • Meena

    Well there you are, as I said, the church is the largest organisation, that is a charity, in the world.

    You have cause and effect wrongly interchanged:

    The condom policy is most active in certain areas BECAUSE of the high rates of the disease in the same areas.

    The policy would be much more successful and effective (everywhere). if the church ceased damaging it by their continued preaching against condoms.

  • Acleron

    Meana, above, explains the cause effect fallacy in your relationship of condoms and rates. But if you are not convinced by her argument, consider that ARV prescription will also relate to HIV incidence. Would you consider ARVs to be ineffective?

    I’ll accept the data from experienced epidemiologists and I seriously consider Green’s work but I consider he is wrong and certainly out of line with other workers who examine the data. The last people to accept conclusions from will be those directly involved in unevidenced systems such as abstinence only or those who actively campaign against a system because of ideological zeal. And that last group is not people who supply condoms.

    The ABC program is slightly better but the specification that one third be spent on abstinence only programs and that condoms can only be directed at the highest risk groups is just more ideology. Indeed the catholics are trying to confuse even that message by misquoting it as Abstinence, Be faithful and Chastity rather than Condoms, more of your ideological zeal perhaps.

    Also, the results from ABC are not exactly brilliant. 

    Notice that half the teenagers questioned about ABC in Kenya spontaneously said that condoms were immoral, unreliable and were designed to let HIV be transmitted. Now I wonder which unethical scoundrels gave them those lies. Any ideas?

  • Acleron

    I assumed that :)

  • Dawnfirebird

    I write as an African Catholic who has lived ad nauseum under gross strident western assumptions of our experiences of diseases such as AIDS, the erasure of our actual narratives of what hurts us, what we aspire to, and how we ‘speak to’ our own destinies. It is debilitating to always fall under someone’s ‘project’, and worse still to completely lose one’s voice under a cacophony of howls that know best for an entire people, what they should do with their lives, pains and hopes. Most of our people CHOSE to hear out the position of the church because of a deep awareness that all disorder comes from the depths–a lesson your own countries would be wise to acquire–because we have lived the devastation of this disorder to an extent of experiencing that condoms do not help, do not limit the spread of this pain, and does not address the root cause of any disorder. (The fetishisation of objects is not a problem in our continent as it in your western territories).

    If the Jesuits and other participate in our journeys, it is because we allow them to, and it does not mean they have a unique podium upon which to speak for us—and thank God, they do not, contrary to what would-be western hagiographers suggest.

    Kindly allow us the very simple courtesy of living an opinion that is ours, and give yourselves time to resolve that odd white tendency to attempt to be messiah’s for all African experiences. And for those who really are curious about our human journeys in Africa, in the words of Jesus, beloved to us from long before Christianity reached your climes–”Come and see.”

  • theroadmaster

    Well, I don’t think my original point concerning an over-emphasis on condoms to the detriment of other measures, has been cancelled out by Meena’s claim of a “cause-effect” fallacy.  I pointed out that the highest incidents of AIDS infection are recorded in Sub-Saharan countries with the highest ratio of condoms per male, e.g Botswana and South Africa. These areas have been inundated with condoms for well over a decade and they have failed to make any appreciable difference to the infection rates.  It is only when additional measures like the ABC program, were introduced into the effected countries e.g Uganda, that the rates started to fall.  Of course, we have to factor in the very considerable contribution that antiretroviral drugs have made to the decline in the death rate from AIDS.
    Edward Green is one of the most respected experts on the subject of AIDS treatment in the world, and his opinion cannot be taken lightly. In fact, it is gaining ground, at the expense of the rather limited and overrated condoms-only policy.

    You can call the implementation of the ABC program “ideology” if you like, but it’s common sense value and effectiveness cannot be doubted. Of course, it’s spiritual appeal, if you are a person of Faith, is one more reason to back it.

    If you check out link, you will find very credible evidence that the proper implementation of the ABC program has made the qualitative difference to the undoubted dramatic fall in AIDS infection rates in Uganda and other countries-
    “..However, most experts closely involved in assessing the causes of the steep decline in HIV rates in Uganda would agree with Low-Beer’s conclusion that the most important single, distinctive factor behind every HIV prevention success is “wide social communication leading to declines in casual sex of up to 65% at the population level. If this risk avoidance did not occur, HIV did not decline, even with greater resources, condom use, counseling, education and  treatment”..”

  • Meena

    You have not taken my point on board.

    Nor have you considered the effect of the Church’s propaganda, which seeks to prevent the use of condoms. It claims it is speaking for God, you know – and many rural Africans take this ridiculous claim seriously.

    It may one day be necessary for African governments to expel the Church members who spread this misinformation – when such governments conclude that the benefit of the care given to the sick is swamped by the harm caused.

    Many of the sick are there because of the Church. The Church is only patching-up some of the harm which it causes.

  • theroadmaster

    So while you emphasize the technical aspect of using the condom, promiscuity goes unchecked and the virus spreads.  It seems to me that you are looking at this problem from the wrong end of the telescope, so to speak.  The root cause of the problem is the promiscuous life style of millions who refuse to countenance the physical or moral consequences of their actions.  The Church wisely starts from this view point.  To emphasize condoms only at the expense of other more effective approaches, would be similar to handing a self-harmer bandages and not refer them to a hospital for medical of psychiatric treatment, in case it infringed their “rights” to self-harm. This is the western approach-do not advise people leading promiscuous life-styles to be faithful to their partners, as it might appear to be “moralizing”, despite the very real danger to health that their activities may cause.

  • theroadmaster

    So while you emphasize the technical aspect of using the condom, promiscuity goes unchecked and the virus spreads.  It seems to me that you are looking at this problem from the wrong end of the telescope, so to speak.  The root cause of the problem is the promiscuous life style of millions who refuse to countenance the physical or moral consequences of their actions.  The Church wisely starts from this view point.  To emphasize condoms only at the expense of other more effective approaches, would be similar to handing a self-harmer bandages and not refer them to a hospital for medical of psychiatric treatment, in case it infringed their “rights” to self-harm. This is the western approach-do not advise people leading promiscuous life-styles to be faithful to their partners, as it might appear to be “moralizing”, despite the very real danger to health that their activities may cause.

  • James

    “You have cause and effect wrongly interchanged”
    I think you are the one who is too stupid to even know what cause and effect are.
    Condoms are not the answer to HIV.  Any sensible person who has been to Africa can tell you that. 

  • Meena

    Nothing is gained by being abusive.

    So, in your fantasy, the World Health Organisation (to give just ONE competent example) is not “manned” by sensible people.

  • dawnfirebird

    Also writing as a former and now reformed development game player, who witnessed  the alarming rise of statistical infection close to the time when budget decisions for NGO funding were about to be announced. A bit like the drought and famine fund raising game, which mostly pays for expensive mortgages of small castles abroad. It would be great, the day that those who are experiencing these hard journeys can speak for themselves, can address their own lives without a million mediators who assume their helplessness, and like vultures feed off their fates.

  • Acleron

    “The root cause of the problem is the promiscuous life style of millions who refuse to countenance the physical or moral consequences of their actions. ”

    The root cause is a very small piece of RNA and protein that disrupts the immune system.

    Enforcing your morality laws is not necessary or desirable, alternative methods are available. At the moment a combination of behaviour change and condoms is the best available to prevent infection, no morality police required. It is faintly distasteful that a) you require people to die because of something written more than 2000 years ago and b) rather than consider this a tragedy that requires best treatment known to science you use it as a opportunity to push your outdated rules of conduct.